Schlage Wafer Lock Key Bitting Specification

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Walter Schlage patented his unique wafer lock system in 1927 (Patent No. 1,691,529).  At the time the design was quite innovative. It was one of the first locks suitable for permanent mounting in a door that was constructed entirely from stamped metal parts, it was of the first commercially successful examples of the now common cylindrical bore format of locks, and coincidentally was remarkably resistant to weather and debris. Schlage’s company would continue to make improvements on the design for the next four decades before finally ceasing production sometime after 1960.While these locks are now considered to offer very little in the way of security they have hung on long enough to be considered important for maintaining the historic aesthetic of buildings from the 1930s through the 1960s.
After extensive research, we have compiled the following key bitting specification for the Schlage wafer:
Schlage Wafer Key Bitting Specification
For more information on the Schlage wafer lock, see the following:

Locksmith News – 5/28/2018


SecurityInfoWatch: Nortek’s acquisition of IntelliVision could prove to be a transformative move When Nortek Security & Control pulled the trigger on last week’s acquisition of California-based artificial intelligence and deep learning-based video analytics vendor IntelliVision, the move essentially propelled the company into the expanding universe of solutions providers vying for their niche in the Internet of Things (IoT). By virtue of the acquisition, Nortek is now uniquely situated to become one of the few technology companies that could eventually build the elusive IoT bridge that will link residential, commercial, institutional, retail and public safety sectors into a seamless and actionable communication network. [READ MORE]

Cabinet, Cam, and Mailbox

Woodworking Network: Combination Cam Lock FJM Security Products’ Combi-Cam division has introduced a new combination cam lock with manager key override that offers higher security with a flush mount and ratcheting knob. The lock features two modes, a static one-user mode, or a one-time-use mode where an unlimited number of people can use the lock with a unique code each time. The deadlocking combination feature allows dials to be scrambled while the lock is open and if the combination is forgotten, the manager key can be used to override the combination to discover and reset the code. [READ MORE]

Case Study

CNET: AI-powered CCTV cameras in China catch another wanted fugitive Authorities caught a guy as he was leaving a concert. At least he got to listen to it first. [READ MORE]
The Washington Post: A short circuit unlocked cells at a South Carolina jail. Now a murder suspect is on the loose. Tyshon Demontrea Johnson and Curtis Ray Green, both facing trials for brutal murders, fled Orangeburg Detention Center with a third inmate Saturday after a short circuit caused their cell doors to automatically open. Johnson and the third inmate, an accused carjacker, have since been recaptured, but the manhunt had not resulted in Green’s capture by early Wednesday, leaving the jail’s frightened neighbors demanding to know how its systems could so utterly fail. [READ MORE]
WDAY6: Police say certain types of locks more susceptible to break ins Thousands of garages are at risk of burglary, that’s according to a warning from Fargo Police. Police want people to be especially careful if they have a certain type of lock on their garages, they say these key operated electronic locks are especially easy to get into. [READ MORE]

Wireless Electronic Locks

Forbes: A Basic Z-Wave Hack Exposes Up To 100 Million Smart Home Devices So-called “smart” locks and alarms are proliferating across people’s homes, even though hackers have shown various weaknesses in their designs that contradict their claims to being secure. Now benevolent hackers in the U.K. have shown just how quick and easy it is to pop open a door with an attack on one of those keyless connected locks. [READ MORE]
(Direct Link to Pen Test Partner’s Z-Wave Exploit Write-Up: Z-Shave. Exploiting Z-Wave downgrade attacks)
Venture Beat: LockState raises $5.8 million to accelerate adoption of smart locks in homes LockState, the parent company of RemoteLock cloud platform for smart locks, has raised $5.8 million in a new round of funding to accelerate the adoption of smart locks in homes. [READ MORE]

Tyler's Take: KeyMe and RFID Cloning

Earlier this year, KeyMe, makers of the “Locksmith In A Box”, began offering cloning, or duplicating, services for 125 kHZ RFID access control credentials at select kiosks around the country. Customers could present their credential (usually a card or fob) at one of these kiosks, have the data read, and a duplicate credential would then be shipped to the customer within 2 or 3 business days. KeyMe, which already offers standard key duplication services, said the decision to begin offering RFID credentials was in response to customers “asking for more opportunities”. KeyMe’s decision to offer this service fascinates me for a number of reasons but it also creates a lot of thoughts and questions for me:
First, it’s the first time I’ve seen a retail company openly circumventing an access control system by allowing users to obtain duplicate credentials from a source other than the systems’ administrator(s). Sure, there are online services and aftermarket cloners available/able do the same but how many people know this? And how convenient is it for someone to go that route as opposed to visting one of these kiosks on a Saturday afternoon while already out shopping?
Second, what’s the limit for these types of services? If the technology and/or knowledge to clone other formats is either known or discovered, would KeyMe begin offering cloning services for those formats if demand were large enough? Would KeyMe either develop or lease an app along the lines of the MIFARE Classic Tool to assist in the process? The potential is there for some very, very interesting possibilities if KeyMe is so inclined.
Third, what does this mean for access control? It may seem that I’ve been picking on access control lately (I promise, that’s unintentional) but there is no question that we’re seeing more and more mainstream sources openly promoting what most would consider flaws in existing access control systems. Whether it’s Kisi publicly discussing and demonstrating the vulnerabilities of their competitors’ products or companies like KeyMe and allowing users to clone their cards or fobs on their own accord, it appears as if Pandora’s box has been opened for access control vulnerabilities and it’s going to be fun to watch moving forward. Who’s going to be the next manufacturer to say this or do that? What’s next?
I talked about “cannibalization” in When Will The Future Arrive? but only as it relates to markets. We may be seeing unintentional corporate cannibalism, or companies competing against themselves. Throwing other companies or systems under the bus or circumventing them to make a dollar may be good for the short game, but for the long game? Reputation is everything and if you help devolve the very market you serve, well, you might just go down a slippery slope that you can’t come back from. Time well tell but I’ve got my popcorn ready to watch how this all unfolds.

By |2018-05-24T09:00:30+00:00May 24th, 2018|Access Control, All, Credentials, Tyler's Take|0 Comments

Testing Electrified Hardware with 9V Batteries

Very often I, and anyone else that dabbles in access control, get called to troubleshoot problems with an access control system. Whatever the symptoms, the usual checklist of diagnosing the problem(s) includes things like checking for continuity, proper voltage and amperage, integrity of splices, etc. There have been times where everything seems to check out and the only thing that hasn’t been tested is that electrified door hardware itself. This could be an electric strike or an electrified panic device, for example.
Now I know what some of you may be thinking: if it’s getting the proper voltage and amperage it’s obviously the electrified door hardware that’s the problem. Fair point and nearly always true. When diagnosing something like a stuck solenoid or a solenoid plunger that needs adjustment on, say, a Von Duprin panic device with an EL or QEL kit, it can be very problematic to constantly swipe or read a card to send voltage/amperage to the electrified door hardware while diagnosing and/or adjusting it. This is especially true if you’re trying to observe or position a multimeter or pay close attention to something in particular, such as inrush current. Examples abound for the benefit of a makeshift power supply in the field when troubleshooting access control components.
This need doesn’t arise all that often but when it does it’s helpful to know that you can create one of these makeshift power supplies with nothing more than scrap wire and a 9 volt battery, or two.
Note: Keep in mind that this is only for DC powered electrified door hardware.

Basic 9V Circuit(s)

Let’s start by recapping electrified door hardware basics as they relate to our situation. A vast majority operate on either 12 or 24V. Some operate on 16V or 18V and while these are outliers the methods discussed below can still be utilized to diagnose them.
If you are diagnosing electrified door hardware operating on 12V, a 9V battery is enough to test it. I have yet to encounter any 12V electrified door hardware that won’t operate when connected to a fully charged 9V battery. If the electrified door hardware operates on 16, 18, or 24V you will need two 9V batteries connected in series.
If you’re unfamiliar with wiring batteries together, here is brief summary:

  1. Two batteries wired in series combines their voltage.
  2. Two batteries wired in parallel combines their amperage.

By wiring two 9V batteries in series we essentially get a 18V battery (the makeshift power supply). And some of you might be saying, “that’s not enough for 24V!” It’s never not worked for me. If you run across the unicorn I’m still looking for, just add another 9V in series for 27V.

Wiring 9V Batteries

The positive and negative terminals are clearly marked on 9V batteries; the bigger of the two is negative (anode), the smaller positive (cathode).

To wire a battery in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the other. The remaining positive and negative terminal then become your positive and negative leads, which you connect to the electrified door hardware. It’s that simple.

In a pinch, you can cut wire for the connections and tape them in place. If you diagnose access control systems/components regularly I would highly advise you to grab a pair of snap connectors (they can be salvaged from electronic equipment or purchased at Radio Shack or Frys for less than $2 each) and wire them in series so that you don’t have to cut and splice and tape every time you want to use this makeshift power supply; they’re also much more reliable. I also solder the tips of the leads to keep the wires from fraying or breaking. You could buy clips or probes instead and attach them if you desired. Up to you; no right or wrong answer.

Locksmith News – 5/21/2018



Case Study

Electromagnetic Locks

Wireless Electronic Locks

Tyler's Take: When Will The Future Arrive?

The future is already here – it’s just not very evenly distributed. – William Gibson

I have the unique privilege of having at my disposal just about every trade magazine published since the 1970s. It’s a wonderful library for sure but in between the voluminous information that is contained within, there are many editorial and opinion pieces, much like this one. Judging by the editorials and opinions, access control was, at any given point, “the future of the industry” and every locksmith needed to familiarize themselves with it before the industry eclipsed them and left them in the dust. In 1990, one manufacturer was even so bold to announce the impending demise of the mechanical key in an advertisement that ran for many months (they’re still making tons of them as of this article, 28 years after the fact).
For nearly 50 years we’ve been told about pending impact of access control as it relates to not only our industry but the marketplace as a whole. So…..when will the future arrive? I presume some would argue that the future has been here and access control has already met and eclipsed the goals of the prophets of yesteryear. Of course, they’d be wrong.
In 2013, it was predicted that the access control market share would reach $16.3 billion by 2017; it didn’t, it was valued at $6.39 billion in 2016. This figure was then revised and now it seems that by 2023, the market share will be worth $10.3 billion. That figure pales in comparison to the over all value of physical security market share, an estimated $133.94 billion in 2016, despite being a “best guess” for 5 years from now. As it relates to overall physical security, access control is still very much a “niche” market.
The IHS projected revenue growth of mechanical locks and electronic locks between 2013 and 2017. Electronic locks, annually, were projected to track a little over 2% MORE growth than their mechanical counterparts. Considering the growth of mechanical locks for the last 25 years has been, on average, ~4%, the access control’s market share will not begin the traditional “cannibalization” of mechanical lock market anytime soon if the IHS’ projections are even remotely correct. In other words, the number of openings will increase but we will see mechanical locks used at a rate that virtually negates any inroad that electronic locks may be making.
Put frankly, the anticipated future of the last 3 or 4 or even 5 decades hasn’t arrived. The only question remains: why?



The first reason is simply cost. It costs far more to secure an opening with an access control-based solution than a traditional, mechanical lock. Most companies, large and small, simply can’t justify the costs to equip every door, or even most doors, with an access control-based solution. Additionally, access control prices haven’t gotten all that better. Here are a few examples:
In 1993, Alarm Lock’s DL2500, an electronic digital lock, had a list price of $415.00. In 2018, Alarm’s Lock DL2700, the closest modern day equivalent of the DL2500, has a list of price $881.00.
In 1995, Hanchett Entry Systems, Inc.’s (HES) 1003 Series had list prices, depending on the model, between $260-321. In 2018, the 1500 Series, the modern day equivalent to the 1003 Series, has list prices that range between $520-689.
Granted, the DL2700 has a few more features and a larger code bank than the DL2500 and the 1500 Series allows the users to determine fail-safe and fail-secure in the field while the 1003 Series did not but neither improvement can realistically be argued to warrant such a large price increase.
You may be saying, well it’s not just features, it’s also the cost of materials, like steel. That is true, the price of commodities, specifically steel and aluminum, has increased quite a bit since the mid 1990s (steel increasing by as much as 122%, for example). But consider this: the prices of durable goods, things like cars, computers, and even CCTV cameras, have dropped since 1995. So why is access control one of the few exceptions?
One answer may be that while things like cars, computers, and CCTV cameras have experienced great technological advances, access control hardware has not. We’re still utilizing electric strikes and electromagnetic locks today that are largely the same as the ones utilized 20 and 30 years ago. They still use roughly the same amount of materials and are manufactured in much of the same way. If you’re using the same materials and processes then you’ll largely float the proverbial wave of commodity prices, labor wages, etc. Sure, you can mitigate some costs via out sourcing and offshore manufacturing but given the current Administration, that’s no longer a guarantee. The recent steel and aluminum tariffs along with multiple manufacturers either restarting or building new plants/mills will add yet another consideration in the matter and time will ultimately show the impact of these changes. Suffice to say, the future, as it relates to costs, is definitely going to be interesting!
One final note: integrator strategy. Larger commercial integrators are now selling access control systems at or slightly above cost with multi-year service contracts. In other words, subsidizing the cost of materials so that they make their money on guaranteed labor and the occasional upgrade or up-sell. They’ve realized that cost makes access control a hard sell and are coming up with creative ways to secure future work and profits. Is this the solution to the cost barrier? Perhaps, but time will tell.

CCTV’s Rise

A strong argument could be made that the low costs of CCTV cameras/equipment coupled with CCTV’s growing ubiquity and advances in technology, such as facial recognition software, have negated many benefits of access control. You no longer have a need for an audit trail if you can physically see who entered the room, at what time, and how long they were in the room. Furthermore, unlike access control, CCTV can potentially show what, if anything, left the room with them. And, with the exception of biometrics, credentials for access control systems can be shared. CCTV prevents this by, again, allowing the staff to physically see who used the credential.
If I can secure a room with a restricted key and point a camera in it’s direction, I’ve just about satisfied all of the benefits of an access control solution and at a fraction of the cost.

Vulnerabilities and Image

If you’ve followed the news for the last few years you’ve no doubt heard of the vulnerabilities associated with access control solutions. From Ransomware attacks plaguing hotels to “zero-day hacks” striking entire product lines and from an entire credential standard being compromised to firmware updates accidentally “bricking” hundreds of locks, people are being reminded that access control may not always be the best solution. In the case of the hotel that was hit by multiple ransomware attacks, the Seehotel Jägerwirt in Austria, the hotel manager was so fed up with it that he said they were going to go back to using “old-fashioned keys and locks”.
Another factor is the rise of information security professionals, who now largely influence if not outright dictate security policies for companies. They follow the news and the industry; they are well aware of the caveats. So are most IT professionals. When’s the last time you had a pleasant encounter with a network administrator when trying to configure IP addresses for a system that utilized existing IT infrastructure? There’s a reason they don’t want them on their network(s); it puts it at risk.
There’s also consumer skepticism and distrust. While this issue is almost exclusive to residential wireless or “smart locks”, privacy concerns and data leaks are causing consumers to seriously re-think the convenience of “smart homes” and “smart products”. That uneasiness may also carry over to the commercial world – we are all consumers, after all.

Policy and Habit

To quote a member of our team:

Part of what keeps access control from becoming more ubiquitous is the management side of things. Policies and administration of the systems are so divorced from the real needs of the end users that they end up circumventing the policies or falling back to mechanical locks for 90% of their security.

The Future

The future of access control remains to be seen but this much is true: no one knows what will happen and/or when it will happen.
If I had to guess, I think that the future of access control is largely dependent on which product(s) can satisfy the theories (read: hurdles) identified in this article. For some, cost is all it will take. For others, it will take more. Whatever the case, the hurdles that are now associated with access control will need to be addressed and more than likely solved if it will truly become what we’ve been told it will become for the last 50 years.
Until then, I hesitate to say access control is the future.

By |2018-05-17T09:00:12+00:00May 17th, 2018|Access Control, All, Tyler's Take|3 Comments

Locksmith News – 5/14/2018

Access Control


Sliding and Pocket Doors

Wireless Electronic Locks

Sargent 10 Line Series Overview

Manufacturer: Sargent
Series: 10 Line
Type: Cylindrical Leverset
Warranty: 7 year limited
Listing: Listed for 3 hour doors (double doors require 41-option).
Certifications: ANSI A156.2 Series 4000-Grade 1. Meets UL 10C and UBC 7-2 (1997).
Compliance: All levers conform to ADA requirement for barrier-free accessibility. Levers (L,J & P) conform to California Administrative Code Title 19 and 24.
(Note: All listings, certifications, and compliance are as reported by the manufacturer.)

Related Documents

Additional catalogs, instruction sheets, parts lists, sell sheets, and templates can be found in the 10 Line documents section on the Sargent website.


The Sargent 10 Line is one of two Grade 1 cylindrical leversets offered by Sargent, the other being the 11 Line/T-Zone. The 10 Line is offered in 6 lever styles (B, G, J, L, P, and Y) and two rose designs (G and L). There are 19 different functions available for the 10 Line as well as a fail safe and fail secure electrified/electromechanical function. The 10 Line comes standard with C10-1 conventional cylinders but they can be ordered with Signature, XC, Degree DG1, DG2, and DG3 cylinders. Additionally, they can be ordered prepped for a 6300 LFIC as well as SFIC.


10 Line Exploded View (Manufactured After 2/17/04)

The Sargent 10 Line has seen two different versions, the latter of the two being utilized on locks manufactured after February 17, 2004. There are a number of differences between both versions as it relates to the overall design but two can be easily observed by removing just the outside scalp and lever handle:

  1. The newest version of the 10 Line utilizes spacer bushings (#11 in the exploded view) under each lever handle. The older version does not.
  2. The newest version of the 10 Line utilizes a press-fit scalp (#3 in the exploded view). The older version utilized a scalp that was pushed against the rose assembly and then rotated, thus locking it into place.

Scalp on older Sargent 10 Line

Furthermore, the newest version of the 10 Line is the only cylindrical leverset currently produced by Sargent that utilizes spacer bushings.
Finally, one of the neat features of the 10 Line, both versions, is that the through-bolt studs can have their position changed to match existing preps. For example, if you are installing a 10 Line in a door that was previously prepped for Corbin Russwin CL3300 (2 & 8 o’clock hole positions) or a Marks 195 (6 and 12 o’clock hole positions) a simple reconfiguration of said studs would allow the 10 Line to be installed without additional drilling. For the newest version, this process is described step 2A of the installation instructions. For the older version, this process is described in step 2 below.


The installation instructions for the newest version of the 10 Line are linked above. I could not find the installation instructions for the older version of the 10 Line on the Sargent website but there are still plenty in use and it might be beneficial for you to know the process. With that said, here is the installation process for the older versions:

1. Install latch in door.

2. Install through-bolt studs in appropriate holes to match prep.

3. Install lock body in door.

One quick note here, and this is something that I often see overlooked. In this instance I’m installing a passage function lock. I cannot tell you how often I see the mounting screws installed on the wrong side of the door for passage function locks. Passage function cylindrical leversets allow free ingress and egress. Therefore, it matters not if someone has access to the mounting screws. Place the mounting screws on the outside of the door so that, in the event the lock failed and/or there was an entrapment, you or the next person will be able to disassemble the lock from the outside of the door.

4. Install support plate.

5. Install hex nut.

The spacer hex nut threads directly onto the lock chassis and affixes it with the support plate. Start by hand threading the nut and then tightening it fully with a pair of Channel locks, or similar tool. They do make a spacer wrench (originally included with the lock) if you are able to find one.

6. Install inside rose assembly.

8. Install screws to secure inside rose assembly to the lock body.

There are 2 inside screws and they are #10-32 x 1 3/4″ each.

9. Install support screws.

Like nearly all Grade 1 cylindrical leversets, the inside rose assembly contains holes not utilized by the through-bolts that can be used to affix the inside rose assembly to the door itself and provide a stronger, more reliable installation.

10. Install inside rose scalp.

The inside rose scalp contains notches that mate with the inside rose assembly and allow you insert it flush against the door. Once flush, rotate the inside rose scalp clockwise to lock it into place.

11. Install inside lever.

By |2018-05-10T09:00:28+00:00May 10th, 2018|All, Cylindrical and Tubular, Locks|0 Comments

Locksmith News – 5/7/2018



Case Study

UT’s Old-School Lock and Key Shop.


Linus Yale Jr’s first patent.


Wireless Electronic Locks

August Smart Lock.

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